What is…? – Terms, Abbreviations and Lens Designations

Terms, Abbreviations and Lens Designations

Everyone who takes a deeper dive into photography for the first time, gets drowned by a flood of strange terms and abbreviations. Test reviews, tutorials, and online communities are just full of them. What confused me even more in the beginning, was the fact that there is often more than one designation for the same thing – or, vice versa, one and the same shortcut has several different meanings. I am currently replacing some of my gear, so I had to make sure I was adding the correct designations to the respective item descriptions. And since I was at it anyway, I’m writing it down here for future reference – yours, as well as mine.

BASIC TERMS

Photography fills an abundance of books and videos, which describe the basic steps, give instructions, and explain the terminology. I do not intend to compete with that. However, I do want to give an explanation in my own words of the terms I am using regularly in my blog posts.

For most of the terms, I have added links to the respective articles on Wikipedia, in case you want to read more about a certain topic. And if you’re interested in all the details, I highly recommend Mark Levoy’s “Lectures on Digital Photography”.

Aperture

From a technical point of view, the aperture is the opening in the lens through which light hits the sensor. Usually, it can be varied in size (⇒ Wikipedia).

From an artistic point of view, the aperture is the most important tool for creating an image. It controls the depth of field, i.e. the distance range that will be shown sharp in the picture. This makes the difference between a portrait with a soft background, and a landscape photo where the entire frame is in focus. It also influences the amount of light passing through the lens, in particular when using a flash.

  • The aperture setting is always given in relation to the lens. The aperture value is calculated by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the effective opening. As the size of the opening is the denominator of this fraction, it means that the aperture value is the smaller the larger the opening is.
  • The aperture values are set so that switching from one value to the next always corresponds to either doubling or halving the amount of light let through. This is equal to doubling or halving the size (area) of the aperture opening. The area of a circle with radius r is generally known to be π * r². If I want to double that area, that means: 2 * π * r² = π * 2 * r² = π * (√2)² * r² = π * (√2 * r)². Hence, you need to change the radius by a factor of  √2 ≈ 1.4, if you want to double the area.
  • Thus, the aperture values are always multiples of √2: ƒ/1, ƒ/1.4, ƒ/2, ƒ/2.8, ƒ/4, ƒ/5.6, ƒ/8, ƒ/11, ƒ/16…
Lens with aperture set to different values for comparison (Source: Wikipedia)
  • Since on manual lenses, the aperture ring clicks into place at each of these values, they are also referred to as ‘stops’. Accordingly, the terms ‘stop of light’, ‘stop up’ and ‘stop down’ all relate to doubling or halving the amount of captured light. These phrases are used even if the effect is not achieved by changing the aperture, but by other means, such as changing the exposure time, ISO value, or flash output.
  • Between these ‘full’ values, there are usually values for ±⅓ stop, i.e.: ƒ/2.8, ƒ/3.2, ƒ/3.5, ƒ/4.
  • This notation makes the aperture value, respectively its effect on the exposure of the image, independent from the lens and camera used. Consequently, an image taken of a particular subject and correctly exposed at ‘ISO 100, ƒ/8, 1/200th sec.’ will be correctly exposed with every camera, regardless of size and brand, on which I can dial in these settings. What will be different, though, depending on focal length and sensor size, are the field of view, the angle of view, and the depth of field.
  • When mixing ambient light and flash, the aperture controls the amount of light from the flash in the image, while the ambient light is controlled by the shutter speed.
Bokeh

The term is derived from the Japanese word for “blurred”. In photography, it describes the quality of the out-of-focus areas in a picture taken with a wide-open aperture (⇒ Wikipedia). The bokeh depends on the construction of the respective lens, and the quality of the individual lenses it is comprised of. In particular, portrait lenses usually produce a nice bokeh, to create smooth backgrounds that do not distract in any way from the subject. There are, however, lenses that produce a rather fidgety bokeh, for instance because contours get doubled in out-of-focus areas.

Chromatic Aberration /
Color Fringing

When light passes through drops of water, the individual colors are refracted differently. Sunlight gets split into its individual colors, which we see as a rainbow. The same happens when light passes through pieces of glass in a lens. This means the individual lenses need to be tuned in a very specific way to ensure that on the camera sensor, all the different colors match up again in the intended way. Where this fails, green and purple color fringes appear on contrasting edges in the image, for instance at branches of a tree against a bright sky, or the white frame of an otherwise dark window (⇒ Wikipedia). Chromatic aberration can be corrected in many image-processing software tools, such as Adobe Lightroom.

Crop Factor

To be able to compare different camera types, the main parameters such as the focal length are always converted to the so-called full-frame format. This designation applies to cameras with a sensor the same size as a negative of a 35 mm miniature film (24 x 36 mm). The crop factor equals the ratio of the length of the diagonals (⇒ Wikipedia).

  • Popular formats include APS-C (crop factor 1.5 (Nikon) or 1.6 (Canon)) and Micro-Four-Thirds (crop factor 2 (Olympus, Panasonic)).
  • To compare focal lengths, the values are multiplied by the crop factor: 50 mm on a Canon APS-C camera thus equal – times 1.6 – 80 mm on a full-frame camera. This correspondence applies only to the field of view, however, and not to the angle of view.
  • To compare depth of field, the aperture also gets multiplied by the crop factor. The rear camera on Apple’s iPhone 7, for instance, has an aperture of ƒ/1.8 and a crop factor of 7.2. This roughly equals ƒ/13 on a full-frame camera, which makes it clear why it is almost impossible to get pictures with a blurred-out background using a cell phone camera (large aperture number = large depth of field).
Depth of Field

Depth of field refers to the distance range, within which objects are shown sufficiently sharp in the image (⇒ Wikipedia).

  • In principle, only objects exactly in the focus plane are shown 100% sharp on the image.
  • The further something is away from the focus plane, either in front of it or behind it, the more blurred it becomes. This is a gradual transition, and where an object is still “sharp enough” depends on the resolution of the camera as well as the eye of the beholder.
  • Depth of field is controlled by three factors:
    1. The aperture: low aperture number = shallow depth of field; larger aperture number = large depth of field.
    2. The focal length: the shorter the focal length, the larger the depth of field.
    3. The focus distance: the further away the subject is, the larger the depth of field. Beyond a certain focus distance (depending on focal length and aperture), the depth of field becomes infinite. This distance is called the hyper-focal distance.
  • For this reason, portraits are usually taken with a long focal length and wide-open aperture. Thus, only the face is in focus, while the background becomes as blurred as possible. For landscape pictures, on the other hand, usually a short focal length is used, together with a medium or narrow aperture (such as ƒ/8), to get as much of the picture in focus as possible.
Exposure Triangle

Illustrates the correlation of shutter speed, aperture, and ISO setting for the correct exposure of an image.

  • Each of the three parameters has an exposure component and an artistic component:
    • Each component can make the image darker (fast shutter speed, narrow aperture, low ISO) or brighter (slow shutter speed, wide aperture, high ISO)
    • The shutter speed can either freeze motion (fast) or show motion (slow)
    • A wide-open aperture creates a shallow depth of field, so only the subject is in focus, while a narrow aperture results in a large depth of field, where most of the image is in focus
    • Low ISO values create a clean image, while high ISO values will cause a noisy (grainy) image
    • Depending on the type of photo you want to take, you set one or two of them depending on your priorities, and let the camera figure out the rest.
    • The blog ‘Hamburger Fotospots‘ offers a great cheat card, which illustrates the three parameters listed above, along with their respective effects. The web page is in German, but the ZIP package you can download includes an English version of the cheat card:
Source: Hamburger Fotospots
  • First example: If I cut the exposure time in half, but double the ISO setting, the exposure stays the same (motion blur is reduced, but the picture quality decreases)
  • Second example: If I change the aperture from ƒ/2.8 to ƒ/5.6, I can quadruple the exposure time without changing the exposure (motion becomes more visible, but the depth of field is changed, too).
  • All theory is grey, so here are two YouTube videos that illustrate this very well:
Exposure Time /
Shutter Speed

The time interval during which light hits the sensor. Most cameras allow adjustment between 1/4,000th of a second and 30 seconds (⇒ Wikipedia).

  • Higher-range camera also offer 1/8,000th of a second
  • For long exposure times beyond 30 seconds, there is the so-called ‘bulb’ mode, where the shutter is controlled manually by either pressing and releasing the shutter button, or by pressing it twice.
  • See below for more information about the shutter.
Flash Sync Speed Identifies the shortest exposure time at which a flash without special ‘high speed’ capability will render a fully exposed image. This depends on the build of the shutter (see below), but with most cameras, it is around 1/200th of a second.
Internal Focus On a lens with internal focusing, all moving elements for focusing on your subject are inside the lens. This means that in particular the front element of the lens does neither extend nor rotate when focusing. This is important when using filters that depend on the correct orientation to get the desired effect, such as polarizing filters or graduated filters.
ISO

The name of the International Organization for Standardization in Switzerland. As the shortcut for this organization would be different in every language (in English, it should actually be IOS), ISO is used as a proper name. It is derived from the Greek syllable “iso”, meaning “equal”. In photography, the ISO value describes how sensitive an analog film or digital sensor is to light, as defined in the standard ISO 5800 (⇒ Wikipedia).

  • The default value with most cameras nowadays is ISO 100.
  • The higher the ISO value, the more sensitive to light the film or sensor is. This goes along with an increasing reduction of image quality by increased grain or noise. How strong this effect is on digital cameras depends on the build of the sensor, in particular the size of each individual pixel – the larger, the better. This is why low-light cameras usually have low resolution.
Minimum Focus Distance

The minimum focus distance is the shortest distance on which the camera can still focus with the respective lens. It is important to know that this distance is always measured from the sensor, and not from the front element of the lens. The position of the sensor is marked by a symbol (0) on the camera body. If it is given e.g. as 5 inches, but the distance from the sensor to the front element is already 4 inches, then there is just 1 inch of space left to the targeted object. In general, the minimum focus distance increases with the focal length; for telephoto lenses it can easily be 5 ft. or more. Macro lenses are an exception, because they are built specifically to focus at very short distances, to achieve the large magnification.

Shutter

The shutter is a mechanism inside the camera that allows light to hit the sensor only for the chosen exposure time (⇒ Wikipedia). There are two main types of shutters:

  • An electronic or digital shutter actually isn’t a shutter in the original sense, because light is hitting the sensor all the time. The sensor gets reset (all values set to zero), and after the given time, the values of all pixels are read out. The advantage is that this happens completely silent, as there are no moving parts. Most video, cell phone, and compact cameras work this way, as well as DSLRs in video mode.
  • SLRs usually have a mechanical focal-plane shutter, which allows for very precisely controlled exposure times, as short as 1/8,000th of a second. It is usually built as a pair of two curtains. At the beginning of the exposure time, the first curtain, which until then had completely covered the sensor, slides away. At the end of the exposure time, the second curtain moves out of its resting position, follows the first curtain, and covers the sensor again. At higher shutter speeds (less than 1/200th of a second), the two curtains move so close to each other, that at no point in time the entire sensor is exposed at once. Instead, a slot moves across the sensor so that every region of the sensor gets exposed for the chosen time interval.
    • This slow-motion video on YouTube shows very well what happens inside a camera when taking a picture.
    • Due to the way the shutter works, flashes need a special ‘high-speed synchronization’ mode for working with fast shutter speeds. Otherwise, a black bar would be visible in the image, because only that part of the sensor that was visible between the two shutter curtains when the flash fired, was exposed.
    • Design and way of working of the shutter also explain the terms ‘first / second curtain‘ for firing the flash at the beginning or at the end of the exposure time.
  • Both shutter types do not capture the entire image at once, but the exposure rather moves across the frame. This caused by reading out the pixels row by row with an electronic shutter, or by the movement of the curtains of a focal-plane shutter. The downside is that fast moving objects become distorted in the final image (so-called ‘rolling shutter effect‘). There are also cameras with a so-called ‘global shutter’, which capture the information of the entire image at once. This technology is typically used in rather expensive high-speed cameras.
  • Robert Hall has a video on YouTube where explains the differences as well as the pros and cons of the two shutter types.

ABBREVIATIONS

There are an almost infinite amount of abbreviations in photography. I have selected the ones I often use myself. This section leaves aside all abbreviations that designate lens characteristics; you will find those below in a table of their own.

AF

Auto-focus – The system your camera uses to focus on the targeted subject. There are two distinctly different auto-focus systems: Phase detection is what single-lens reflex cameras employ when using the optical viewfinder. Edge detection is applied when looking through an electronic viewfinder or using the display, for instance on a cell phone. Phase detection is faster, while edge detection is more reliable. In addition, depending on your camera and lens, there are different types of drives moving the lenses accordingly; also see the lens designations below.

APS‑C

Advanced Photo Systems-Classic – This designation embraces digital cameras with a sensor size between 22.5 x 15.0 mm (crop factor 1.6) and 25.1 x 16.7 mm (crop factor 1.5). Basically all interchangeable lens cameras with a retail price under 1,000 € have such a sensor. APS-C is not a standardized label; the actual sensor size varies between manufacturers. Nikon calls their APS-C cameras “DX”.

The designation goes back to the APS system, which was invented back in the 1990s for analog film. The image size is about ⅓ of a 35 mm miniature film. This made it possible to build much smaller cameras, and to store additional information on the film. Due to the quickly emerging digital photography, however, APS never became accepted for analog film, and quickly vanished again.

APS-C as a classification of the sensor size is not related to the camera sensor technology APS (Active Pixel Sensor). This is a type of so-called CMOS sensor, which, due to their compact build and low energy consumption, are used in almost all cell phones and compact cameras.

ILC Interchangeable Lens Camera – A camera where you can quickly change the lens. Often used as a generic term for mirrorless or single-lens reflex cameras, to distinguish them from compact cameras with a built-in lens.
DSLM Digital Single-Lens Mirrorless – Digital cameras without optical viewfinder. They are often also referred to a System Cameras (Example: Sony Alpha a6000). “Single-Lens” means that the image in the viewfinder is captured through the same lens as the actual photo. On older compact cameras, the viewfinder often had its own optics. Nowadays, basically all cameras are digital, the D is often omitted and just SLM is being used. In addition, there are several synonymous acronyms: MILC (Mirrorless Interchangeable Lens Camera), MSC (Mirrorless System Camers) and – my favorite  :mrgreen: – EVIL (Electronic Viewfinder Interchangeable Lens camera).
DSLR Digital Single-Lens Reflex – Digital cameras with an optical viewfinder that uses the same lens as the image sensor (Example: Canon EOS 760D). Again, the D is often omitted and just SLR is used.
MF Manual Focus – Interchangeable lenses usually allow for manually focusing on your subject. This is meaningful in difficult lighting conditions, e.g. for night photography, or for pictures where a moving object shall be captured in a certain position and the auto-focus wouldn’t be fast enough.
MFT

Micro-Four-Thirds – A sensor format with crop factor 2, used primarily by Olympus and Panasonic. “Four Thirds” relates to the 4:3 aspect ratio of the sensor, in contrast to the otherwise usually 3:2.

SOOC

Straight Out Of Camera – This abbreviation is mostly used in online forums and photo communities, and means that the picture it refers to has not been post-processed on a computer in any way.

LENS DESIGNATIONS

Acronyms on lenses tend to be especially confusing, because the manufacturers use different labels for the same functionalities and characteristics.  The table below summarizes the most prevalent shortcuts for the brands I use.

I have left out all terms related to the ‘optical formula’ of a lens, i.e., which specially shaped lenses are built in, and which specific coatings they have. This would go far beyond the scope of this post. In the end, all that matters it their effect on the image quality (distortion, flaring, and chromatic aberration).

Function Canon Samyang Sigma Tamron Tokina
Lens for Full-frame Cameras EF DG Di FX
Lens for Cameras with APS-C Sensor EF-S CS DC Di II DX
Lens for mirrorless Cameras EF-M FE (Sony E-Mount) DN
Image Stabilizer IS (Image Stabilization) OS (Optical Stabilizer) VC (Vibration Compensation)
Auto-focus USM (Ultra-Sonic Motor)

STM (Stepping Motor)

 AF HSM (Hyper-Sonic Motor) USD (Ultrasonic Silent Drive)  AF
Internal Focus IF IF IF IF
Professional Lens L (Luxury) A (Art)

S (Sport)

EX (Excellence)

SP (Super Professional) AT-X Pro
Consumer Lenses C (Contemporary) AT-X
NOTES:
  • Canon: Lenses with internal focus, as well as consumer lenses, do not have a dedicated designation.
  • Samyang: Lenses from Samyang are sold under several different brands, including Rokinon, Bower, Opteka, Pro-Optic, Vivitar und Walimex. They are technically identical, but their prices vary drastically. Full-frame lenses do not have a special label. No lenses with image stabilization are available. Finally, Samyang does not distinguish between different product lines.
  • Tamron: As far as I know, Tamron does not offer any lenses for mirrorless cameras. Consumer lenses do not have a specific label.
  • Tokina: There are no lenses available with image stabilization, or for mirrorless cameras.

CONCLUSION

Recommendation: When you get started, all those terms and abbreviations seem rather confusing. But don’t let yourself be scared by that! To learn the basic terms in the beginning, a book can really help; but in the end, it’s ‘learning by doing’. In particular, the exposure triangle needs closer attention, and you’ll need to memorize the creative possibilities (How do I blur the background? How do I freeze motion?).

What I’ve learned: A lot  😀 And I’m still learning. Even writing this article helped me to better understand a number of things…


LINKS

In addition to the Wikipedia links, additional information can be found here:

Picture credits: Title image: own graphic.

My Gear: The long arm of the sensor: Tamron 70-300 mm f/4-5.6

Tamron SP 70-300mm ƒ/4-5.6 Di VC USD on the Canon 760D

When I considered what lenses to get for my then-new Canon 760D, it was clear from the beginning that I wanted to have a telephoto zoom lens as well. I am using longer focal lengths only occasionally, but still have effective use for them every now and them. As a result, good value for money was key for me. After some research, two lenses made it on my shortlist: the Canon EF-S 55-250 mm ƒ/4-5.6 IS STM, which I will talk about more in the ‘alternatives’ section below, and the Tamron, which I am going to introduce now.

TAMRON SP 70-300 mm ƒ/4-5.6 DI VC USD

The concurrent conclusion of many of the reviews on the internet was, that there is almost no difference between the two aforementioned lenses in terms of image quality. Thus, the longer focal range of the Tamron was the deciding factor for me at the time. After all, my “always-on” lens already covers the range up to 70 mm, so the Tamron perfectly falls into line. 300 mm on a Canon APS-C Camera render the same field of view as 480 mm on a full-frame camera. That takes you a long way, literally. Which also justifies the higher price compared to the Canon 55-250. If bought new, the Tamron currently (April 2017) costs around 300 Euros. I bought it used on eBay, in very good condition, for 180 Euros. At the recent CP+ trade fair in Yokohama, Tamron presented a successor to this lens, with slight improvements for the auto-focus system and the image stabilizer. However, it is not clear yet when, and for what price, the new lens will be available.

Tamron SP 70-300mm ƒ/4-5.6 Di VC USD
Tamron SP 70-300 mm ƒ/4-5.6 Di VC USD

EQUIPMENT

The lens’ features are characterized by the three abbreviations at the end of its full designation: ‘Di VC USD’. ‘Di’ indicates that this is a lens for full-frame cameras. Of course, it will fit on a smaller APS-C camera as well. But the point is: it’s huge! In particular, with the lens hood attached and zoomed in all the way to 300 mm, it reaches an impressive size. That also means it will take up a lot of space in your camera bag, and you will think twice whether you’ll take it along on every trip. The large lens hood, as well as the lens caps for the front and back are supplied with the lens.

‘VC’ stands for Vibration Control, which is Tamron’s brand name for its image stabilizer. On the 70-300, it renders quite impressive results, at least for still photos. I mostly shoot hand-held, and even at 300 mm, only a few images turn out blurry from camera shake. I never recorded any videos with this lens; the reviews say the image stabilizer tends to twitch and jump when filming hand-held, though.

Finally, ‘USD’ is short for ‘Ultrasonic Silent Drive’ and describes the type of auto-focus system used. It works sufficiently fast and it is extremely silent. In general, the auto-focus of the Tamron 70-300 works very well together with my Canon 760D. Only at 300 mm does it hunt back and forth occasionally.

The lens has two switches: one for the VC and one for the auto-focus. The lens features full-time manual focus, which means that even when the AF is activated, you can still manually adjust the focus. There is no focus range limiter as on the Tamon 90 mm ƒ/2.8 Macro, but then with the 70-300, the minimum focusing distance is 5 ft. The large zoom ring is very good to handle, but also tight enough so that the lens does not extend on its own when carried upside down, even with the lens hood attached.

USE AND RESULTS

I primarily use the lens to photograph far-away subjects.  With a minimum focusing distance of about 5 ft., the lens does not really lend itself to taking close-up pictures. There are some exceptions, however, as can be seen in the example images below. For portraits, I prefer lenses with a much wider maximum aperture, such as the 90 mm ƒ/2.8 or the 50 mm ƒ/1.8.

Be that as it may, capturing far-away subjects is what the Tamron excels at. Obviously, on a zoom lens that covers such a wide focal range, there will always have to be some compromises in the optics. At least at this price point – there is a reason why the professional lenses in this category cost seven to eight times as much. Hence it is not much of a surprise that the image, in particular at 300 mm on an APS-C sensor, is not razor sharp. On the other hand, the Tamron handles chromatic aberration – the green and purple fringes on contrasting edges – really well. The little that can be seen can be easily corrected in post-processing.

Long story short: I’ve always been very happy with the image quality.

Here’s a small extreme test to give you an impression of the lens’ performance. Below are two pictures taken during last year’s vacation in the Alps near Salzburg, Austria. They show the view from a mountain cottage to the summit of the Hochstaufen, which is a bit more than four miles away. The first image shows the entire mountain, taken in the evening at 90 mm:

Alpenglow: Hochstaufen illuminated by the setting sun
Alpenglow: Hochstaufen illuminated by the setting sun

The next morning, I wanted to see what the Tamron is capable of. Here’s the full image, taken from the same spot, as seen with the lens at 300 mm on an APS-C sensor:

The Hochstaufen summit from a distance of about 4.2 miles - Full picture at 300mm
The Hochstaufen summit from a distance of about 4.2 miles – Full picture at 300mm

The 760D has a 24-megapixel sensor, so the resulting images files have a dimension of 6,000 x 4,000 pixels. I zoomed in to 100% and then cut out the center of the frame around the summit cross. The cross is about 14 ft. tall. If there had been climbers at the summit when I took the picture, you would have clearly seen them. You can clearly see the golden ornament on the cross. There is a close-up image of the summit cross on Klaus Isbaner’s homepage for comparison.

The Hochstaufen summit from a distance of about 4.2 miles - 100% crop from the center of the frame
The Hochstaufen summit from a distance of about 4.2 miles – 100% crop from the center of the frame

I probably could have gotten a sharper image on a sunny day (with a faster shutter speed) and using a tripod. But then, who has perfect conditions whenever taking a photo? This way, I think the images give a representative impression of the lens’ performance. There are more “every day” example images below, at the end of this post.

ALTERNATIVES

As mentioned initially, the main competitor to the Tamron 70-300 mm, at least when using a Canon camera with an APS-C sensor, is the Canon EF-S 55-250 mm IS STM. Since it is designed specifically for these smaller cameras, it is built more compact. For comparison: the Tamron measures (diameter x length) 3.2″ x 5.6″ and weighs 27 oz. The Canon comes in at 2.7″ x 4.3″ and half the weight: 13.2 oz. While the difference in outer dimension doesn’t read impressive, it does make a significant difference in practice. The Canon costs around 180 Euros new; the Tamron around 300 Euros (April 2017). Concerning image quality, both lenses are on par.

In the meantime, I have decided to go for one of the classic 70-200 mm lenses with a constant aperture of ƒ/2.8. The wider aperture offers much more leeway in difficult lighting conditions (at dusk or indoors), for faster shutter speeds when taking action photos, or to blur out the background in portraits. There are several lenses available in this category, but there is one thing they all have in common: they are significantly larger and heavier than even the Tamron. A 70-200 ƒ/2.8 certainly is no lens to always take along wherever you go; I will only pack it for specific purposes. Which makes it important to have a small, light-weight alternative to carry on trips. Hence, I will switch my “everyday telephoto lens” from the Tamron to the Canon. What is a telephoto lens good for if you don’t pack it because it’s too bulky?


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: For its price, the Tamron offers great picture quality and a powerful image stabilizer. If you own an APS-C as well as a full-frame camera, or want to switch in the not too distant future, then the Tamron is the perfect all-round lens for you, and you will definitely have a great time with it! If you’re shooting exclusively with APS-C, and those last 50 mm of focal range are not absolutely mandatory for the type of photography you do, then I recommend the Canon EF-S 55-250 mm ƒ/4-5.6 IS STM for its smaller dimensions and lower price. Both lenses offer similar performance.

What I’ve learned: Personal standards change over time – hence the aspired upgrade to the 70-200 mm ƒ/2.8. I’ve also come to realize that the Tamron, due to its size, is a bit unwieldy – it barely fits into my camera bag. Thus, for the first time now, I will sell one of my lenses again. Nonetheless, I don’t want to miss a telephoto zoom lens in my equipment.


LINKS

Picture Credits: All pictures – own images.


EXAMPLE IMAGES:

Puppy in Action
Puppy in Action – shot from further away, the dog has plenty of space to fool around. The grass nicely shows the depth of field.

 

Short break from playing
Short break from playing – the longer focal lengths lend themselves very well to portraits. The dog was sitting directly at the edge of the field, thus the background is not completely blurred.

The following example images are taken from the post “In Focus: Changing the Perspective“:

Apple Blossoms in the Morning Sun
Apple Blossoms in the Morning Sun. Focal length and aperture help to emphasize the blossoms in the foreground, while the blurred blossoms in the back show it’s just one branch of a blooming tree.

 

Japanese Maple in Fall
Japanese Maple in Fall. Again, the telephoto lens at 300mm and aperture f/5.6 help to pull in the details while at the same time blurring the trees in the background into an even yellow backdrop.

 

Cherry Blossoms
Cherry Blossoms. With the telephoto lens at 300mm, you can get quite close to your neighbor’s cherry tree. At an aperture of F/5.6, the trees in the background get blurred enough to no longer distract.

My Gear: Make the little things count: Tamron 90mm f/2.8 Macro

Tamron SP 90mm ƒ/2.8 Macro Di VC on the Canon 760D

Did you know that a butterfly’s eyes are dotted? It was surprising to me to see that on one of my own pictures. Macros – or close-up images in general – have always been fascinating me, because they allow you to take your time and see details that are usually overlooked.

Even for my old compact cameras I had some screw-on close-up lenses to take pictures of flowers, for instance. Considering my skill level and equipment at the time, the results were not very impressive, though. When I started to get deeper into photography in the fall of 2015, I quickly came across several video tutorials focused on macro photography. There many different technical approaches to doing this; e.g. the so-called “extension tubes”, which are mounted between the lens and the camera body, or retro-adapters, which allow you to mount the lens the other way around to your camera. These are widely used and inexpensive ways to get started.

However, I wanted to get seriously into this from the very start, so I immediately started looking for a dedicated macro lens. A review on a German YouTube channel brought the Tamron to my attention, and I was lucky to get a good deal on it by buying it used on eBay.

TAMRON SP 90mm ƒ/2.8 MACRO DI VC

Tamron SP 90mm ƒ/2.8 Macro Di VC
Tamron SP 90mm ƒ/2.8 Macro Di VC

One thing to consider is the fact that macro lenses aren’t just good for close-ups. They typically offer superior image sharpness, and with an aperture of ƒ/2.8 they also lend themselves well to making portraits. The model of the Tamron I have (F004) is currently (Feb. 2017) available for around 350 to 400 Euros on either eBay or Amazon. Since 2016, its successor (model F017) is available. The new model has a redesigned, more modern exterior, and according to internet reviews also some improved optics. However, the price point for it is between 650 and 700 Euros. From a value for money perspective, the old model is unbeatable in my mind, and has proven itself very well.

EQUIPMENT

Size and weight of the lens are in the mid-range. The lens alone weighs around 600g (1.3lb), and together with my 760D it’s around 1.200g (2.6lb). So it can be easily carried around, and, if necessary as described below, held in one hand. It comes with caps for the front and back, as well as a lens hood. The autofocus is relatively quick, and its range can be limited to different settings: 0.3-0.5m, 0.5m-∞, and full range. Thus, you can avoid the camera going through the full focus range when “hunting” for insects, which will save you precious seconds. Of course, the lens also has an image stabilizer – Vibration Control (VC) as Tamron calls it – which renders good results. You’ll have to keep in mind, though, that when working in close range, different rules apply for avoiding camera shake.

USE AND RESULTS

There are many different ways to perform macro photography. There is one thing however that you will always need: lots of light. When shooting close, especially when hand-holding the camera, the shutter speed should be as fast as possible to avoid camera shake. This close to the camera, the image stabilizer is of limited use – even at 1/100 of a second it’s not all that unusual to have some blurry images. When the sun is out, I grab my camera and the lens and go outside, looking for motivation. This is how I found the ice crystals, and the maple seed covered in white frost, in the example pictures below. While the bright sunlight around noon is shunned by landscape and portrait photographers due to harsh shadows and strong contrasts it causes, this is exactly what makes it ideal for macro photography because it emphasizes all the fine details.

If there isn’t enough sun, I use a flash in addition – either a dedicated macro flash that mounts to the front of the lens, or a regular flashgun which I hold in my left hand and then aim for the subject of my motivation as needed. I use wireless remotes, or a cable, to fire the flash. Handling the flashgun is a bit circumstantial, especially because it means having to hold and operate the camera with one hand as well, but it provides more freedom for setting the light. I took the photos of the butterfly and the bumble bee using this approach.

Of course the “hunt” for moving targets such as insects demands a lot of patience. The little beasts are faster than you think, as you will notice when you wish for one to just once sit still for a second. On a single weekend, I took about 500 pictures at our lavender bush – in the end, I kept ten.

Finally, you can set up your camera and flash around a table and position your object of interest in front of the lens. I fixed the dandelion in a small vase and then photographed it piece by piece. Close up, the depth of field is very shallow, so it’s impossible to get the entire blossom sharp from front to back in a single exposure. Hence I took several images, focusing on different areas of the dandelion – front, center, back – and then afterwards combined them in Photoshop to a single sharp image (“focus stacking”).

Looking for the tiny things, or tinkering with focus stacking, is a lot of fun for me, and the results are astonishing over and over again. The fantastic image quality the Tamron renders contributes to this as well.

ACCESSORIES

Over the course of the last year, I picked up a variety of accessories for macro photography; a macro ring-flash, a camera slider for the tripod, a cable for the flash and an additional close-up adapter. I will write more about those in future posts – in particular since now that spring is coming up, the number of interesting motivations quickly increases again.


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: I can highly recommend the Tamron to anyone taking a serious interest in macro photography. The old model (Foo4) renders very good results and provides unbeatable value for money.

What I’ve learned: Macro photography is great fun! No matter whether you’re outside, on the hunt for flowers, insects, and other details, or if you take your motivations back home and then carefully set them up – seeing all the fine details afterwards enlarged on your screen is amazing. And this is how I learned that a butterfly’s eyes are dotted.


LINKS

Picture Credits: All pictures – own images.


EXAMPLE IMAGES:

Dandelion - Composite of nine images by focus stacking
Dandelion – Composite of nine images by focus stacking

 

Butterfly on a lavender bloom
Butterfly on a lavender bloom

 

Bumblebee on a lavender bloom
Bumblebee on a lavender bloom

 

Maple seed with white frost in the morning sun
Maple seed with white frost in the morning sun

 

Ice crystal on a car roof on a frosty January morning
Ice crystal on a car roof on a frosty January morning

YouTube Recommendation: Christopher Frost

Christopher Frost Photography

When I started looking for additional lenses for my 760D, the YouTube channel by Christopher Frost was among the first I subscribed to. Chris is an enthused photographer living in Cardiff and currently training to be become a vicar. He characterizes himself as a “lens enthusiast” and continuously publishes detailed reviews.

I’ve come to appreciate these reviews a lot. Chris follows a thorough and consistent scheme, so that his reviews can be easily compared to each other. From time to time, he takes advantage of that himself and combines several reviews into a “battle” – for instance, ten different 50mm prime lenses, or eight ultra wide-angle ones. Hence, it not only becomes evident how one particular lens behaves under various settings or on different cameras, but you can also easily compare lenses to each other.

He assesses the following points:

  • Look & feel, build quality, and equipment
  • Image quality (sharpness, contrast, chromatic aberrations) – on a full-frame as well as an APS-C camera, as far as applicable, at different apertures, and (for zoom lenses) at different focal lengths.
  • Distortion and vignetting
  • Close-up image quality
  • Behavior against bright lights
  • Bokeh

When it comes to lenses, he tests about everything that can be mounted to a Canon DSLR; in particular off-brand ones. Thus, he created more than a 130 videos by now. Recently, he obtained a mirrorless camera, so that lenses made specifically for DSLMs are now being reviewed as well.

The videos are made in a very likeable way. In addition to the always-similar test images, they always contain some example images as well as personal experiences when using the lens. He’s enthusiastic about what he’s doing, but he doesn’t overdo it. The videos have a very convenient duration of five to ten minutes each. His British English can be easily understood. Based on his reviews, for instance, I have decided to go with the Tamrom SP 70-300mm ƒ4-5,6 Di VC as my telephoto zoom lens.

PLAYLIST RECOMMENDATIONS

In addition, Chris has some other playlists mostly focused on music, TV shows, and his engagement at Church.


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: If you’re looking for well-made, substantiated, and informative reviews on lenses for Canon cameras, then Chris’ YouTube channel comes highly recommended!

What I’ve learned: Due to the comparability of the reviews, I have learned how significantly different lenses can behave concerning sharpness and color-fringing at different aperture settings and focal lengths, and also how big the differences can be when using one and the same lens on full-frame body or an APS-C camera.


LINKS

Title image: YouTube Screenshot

My Gear: Vast Spaces – Tokina 11-20mm f/2.8 DX

Tokina AT-X Pro SD 11-20mm ƒ/2,8 DX on the Canon 760D

The main reason for me to get a new camera in the fall of 2015 was the unique opportunity to photograph the Milky Way in the mountains on the edge of the desert in New Mexico (USA). This also meant: I needed a lens suitable for astro-photography. From research on the Internet, I quickly learned two essential criteria:

  • widest possible angle, to catch plenty of sky
  • widest possible aperture, to gather enough light

For APS-C cameras such as my 760D, “ultra wide-angle” means a focal length between 10 and 20mm.  A wide variety of lenses from different manufacturers are available in this range. Most of these have a variable aperture, from ƒ/3.5 or even ƒ4.5 to ƒ/5.6, which means they do not let in a lot of light. But then there is one lens with a quite unique setup.

TOKINA AT-X Pro SD 11-20mm ƒ/2,8 (IF) DX

Tokina AT-X Pro SD 11-20mm ƒ/2,8 DX
Tokina AT-X Pro SD 11-20mm ƒ/2,8 DX

The Tokina has a constant wide aperture of ƒ/2.8 and thus lets in a lot more light (about two to four times as much) than the other lenses in this focal range. With a price tag of around 600 € (Jan. 2017), it is also the most expensive lens, though – aside from Canon’s professional lenses such as the 14mm ƒ/2.8 for around 2,000 €. If you want to capture the night sky and hence need the wide aperture, the Tokina is well worth the investment.

BUILD QUALITY

A wide aperture always means a lot of glass, hence the lens is big and heavy. Together with the camera however, it balances well in your hands. It feels solid, and even though the casing is made from plastic, it doesn’t feel too “cheap”. The focus switch, however, is subject to critique: the lens has a push-pull mechanism, i.e. you move the focus ring back and forth to switch between manual and autofocus, as can be seen by the respective markings on the image above. Most of the time this won’t work without wiggling and you’ll inadvertently shift the focus point. Aside from that, the autofocus is reliable, and the manual focus is smooth and precise. The lens doesn’t provide image stabilization, but at such short focal lengths, this is not really needed in my opinion. The lens comes with front and back caps as well as a lens hood. Due to the wide angle of view, the hood is short, but has a very large diameter. This means it doesn’t fit into most pouches along with the lens but needs to be stored separately.  Because of its size and weight, I don’t take the Tokina with me whenever I go out, but pack it only when needed.

USE AND RESULTS

I use the lens on a regular basis now. Of course I use it for capturing the night sky, as can be seen in the examples below. There are other uses as well – it also lends itself to taking pictures in confined interior spaces, in particular with atmospheric lighting. For instance, the picture of the steam engine cab, which was illuminated just by a simple lamp, would not have been possible with a longer focal length because of the limited space. It is also great for landscapes, such as a sunrise at the beach. These uses technically do not require the ƒ/2.8 aperture, but it still offers the advantage of reaching a sharp image throughout the frame earlier than other lenses when stopping down.

The example images below have all been taken at the short end – i.e. at 11mm – because that is what I bought the lens for. Even though I do have alternative lenses for the long end with the Sigma C 17-70mm, or the Sigma A 18-35mm, the Tokina’s zoom range up to 20mm offers the flexibility to snap a “regular” wide-angle shot in between without having to change lenses.

I am quite happy with the image sharpness the lens renders. It’s always sharp in the middle; the corners of the frame however are perceptibly softer at ƒ/2.8. This can be seen in the shot of the Milky Way below, by comparing the sizes of the stars in the center of the image to those in the corners. This behavior is typical for all ultra wide-angle lenses, and stays within acceptable bounds for me. When you stop down, the image gets sharp from end to end at ƒ/5.6 at the latest. If you close the aperture even further to ƒ/11, you’ll get beautiful sun stars. However, when shooting into the light, the lens will create very prominent lens flares. They can look stylish, but often they are not desired.


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: If you want to photograph at night, to take pictures in moderately lit confined interior spaces, the Tokina is definitely worth the investment. It is solid, reliable and renders good image quality. It’s not flawless, however, and the recommendation is primarily based on its unique feature, the constant wide aperture of ƒ/2.8.

If you don’t need such a fast lens, I highly recommend the Canon EF-S 10-18mm ƒ/4.5-5.6 (Link to Amazon). It is considerably smaller, lighter, and most of all a lot less expensive (Jan. 2017: 230 €) than the Tokina. It also renders sharp images, but it lets in a lot less light – only a quarter of the amount compared to the Tokina – so you’ll be tied to brighter scenes, slower shutter speeds or higher ISO setting.

What I’ve learned: Taking pictures with an ultra wide-angle lens is a lot of fun – in particular because you can get a lot into your image even in a small space, or capture vast landscapes with just a single shot. This however poses the challenge of finding something interesting for the foreground, otherwise it’s easy to get lost in the scene because everything is pushed back – something I’m still working on. In particular with the Tokina, I have discovered the joy of astro-photography – even though that’s not an easy task considering the amount of light pollution in the area I live in.


LINKS

Picture Credits: All pictures – own images.


EXAMPLE IMAGES:

Sunrise on St. Simon's Island
Sunrise on St. Simon’s Island

 

Fire Basket on the Terrace
Fire basket on the terrace

 

Driver's cab of a steam engine (HDR)
Driver’s cab of a freight-train steam engine (HDR)

 

Milky Way over Albuquerque
Milky Way over Albuquerque

 

Mountain cottage in a full-moon night
Mountain cottage in a full-moon night

Rented and tested: Sigma A 50-100mm f/1.8

Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8 on the Canon 760D

One remaining gap in my equipment list is a high-quality tele-zoom lens – in particular one that can capture portraits with a nice blurry background (bokeh). I already have two prime lenses that can be used in this way: the “nifty fifty” Canon 50mm ƒ/1.8 and the Tamron SP 90mm ƒ/2.8 Di VC Macro. But for situations like events, where people are moving around, I prefer the flexibility of a zoom lens.

Two types of lenses come into mind: first, the “classic” 70-200mm ƒ/2.8, which is available from Canon, Sigma and Tamron in various different styles. Second, the rather new Sigma 50-100mm ƒ/1.8, which is designed specifically for APS-C Cameras like my Rebel T6s. All these lenses have one thing in common: they are in a price range where you no longer buy one “on a hunch”. Of course there are numerous test reports and reviews online. But there is only one way to find out which glass fits my personal photography  style: try it out.

SO TEST THEREFORE, WHO JOIN FOREVER

Only a few of you will be so lucky to have a photographer friend who will happily lend such a lens for some time. Fortunately, there are now quite a number of suppliers who offer to rent photo equipment – not only lenses, but also cameras or entire flash and lighting equipment. I have used such a service twice now, and have had very good experiences doing so.

ZOOMYRENTALS

The company I use is ZoomyRentals.de. They are in Berlin, Germany, and offer a wide variety of camera, lenses and accessories by and for Canon, Sony, and Nikon. They ship only inside Germany of course, but wherever you are – search for “rent camera lens” online, and I am sure you will find a provider in your area. The steps described below will most likely be the same. Here is how it works:

  • You register
  • When ordering for the very first time, you have to upload a copy of your ID to your user profile for verification. Your name and address have to be clearly visible.
  • You select the desired equipment
  • You choose the starting date and the term of lease – this can be from 3 days to 4 weeks.
  • There you go!

I highly recommend signing up for the option insurance that is offered with each order. With expensive equipment, it is better to go safe than sorry.

SHIPPING

A DHL messenger does the delivery. You will receive your equipment on the morning of the first day of the lease, and a messenger will pick it up again on the morning of the last day. This is very reliable; delivery and pickup will be acknowledged with a signature, so you are on the safe side. Most of all, the package won’t accidentally end up on your porch or at a neighbor who might not be there when you need it.

Gut verpackt: Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8 fertig zum Versand
Carefully packed: Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8 ready for shipping

All lenses come with front and back caps, lens hood, protection filter, and a pouch. This all will be safely packed between thick layers of foamed material. The box also contains the delivery slip as well as the return-shipping label.

Now you’re ready to go: you can use the rented equipment whichever way you want as long as you have it. Careful handling of all items is a matter of course.

SIGMA A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8

In December 2016, I rented the “big brother” of my Sigma A 18-35mm ƒ/1.8 for one week. I had friends visiting me during that time, and I also attended a festivity, so there were many opportunities to test the lens.

LOOK & FEEL

The lens immediately draws attention: It is big. And it is heavy. Holding the camera leisurely with one hand quickly becomes an athletic challenge; certainly not a lens to carry with you at all times, but only for specific occasions. If you set this in relation to its price tag of around (Dec. 2016) 1,000 €, you’ll quickly realize that this investment had to be thought through thoroughly. There’s a reason for the weight, though: A focal length of 100mm and an aperture of 1.8, as well as the zoom, require a lot of glass. In addition, the lens is made from sturdy metal and manufactured to high standards.

I liked the handling of the zoom as well as the focus ring very much. All in all, the finish, which is similar to my 18-35mm, is very convincing. Also, I didn’t mind the tripod collar, which is criticized in many online reviews, when handling the lens.

Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8
Big, heavy, high quality: Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8

CONFIGURATION & OPERATION DOMAIN

This lens serves but one purpose: the creation of professional-looking portraits with beautiful soft backgrounds with an APS-C camera. The constant aperture of ƒ/1.8 is its unique feature. The zoom range is rather limited – just 2x, compared to almost 3x on the classic 70-200. However, especially when taking pictures at an indoor event, I quite liked the zoom range. The extra 20mm at the shorter end definitely are an advantage in this case, and at the long end, you can make up for a lot of the missing focal length by cropping the image. Thanks to the fantastic sharpness this lens renders, this is no problem at all.

One point you will definitely notice is that this lens lacks image stabilization. In a room with lights dimmed for a festive mood, even using an aperture of ƒ/1.8 and ISO 800, I ended up with shutter speeds between 1/60 and 1/10 of a second. Even when seeking support on a table or armrest, this makes it difficult to avoid camera shake – especially at 100mm. I could have increased the ISO, but with my Rebel T6s I don’t like to go above 800 when I don’t absolutely have to. The resulting image noise at higher ISO settings becomes too intrusive in my mind.

Consequently, I will definitely also try one of the 70-200mm ƒ/2.8 lenses with image stabilization. Even though the shutter speed will become even slower due to the aperture being one and a third stops smaller, the risk for camera shake blurring the image will still become significantly smaller. I will see how this actually turns out in practice.

RELIABILITY & IMAGE QUALITY

The Sigma Art zoom lenses with an aperture of ƒ/1.8 – the 18-35mm as well as the 50-100mm – are famous for their rather ambiguous relationship to autofocus. It seems to depend on the individual lens whether the autofocus works reliably in phase detection mode (through the optical viewfinder) or not. The copy of the 50-100mm I had was exemplary: on every picture I took, the focus was on the spot. With my 18-35mm on the other hand, this is a matter of luck. On about one third of the images, the focus misses completely. Online test reports confirm the impression that this behavior depends on the particular lens; the conclusions for both lenses in this respect range from “hopeless” to “no problems at all”.

The back-up solution is to use the camera’s live view, because the contrast detection autofocus will always work – though slower (if you want to know why this is the case, watch this lecture). If you’re patient enough, you can also focus manually. When taking shots on a tripod, I prefer this option anyway.

The image quality is simply brilliant. Even when shooting wide open, the images are amazingly sharp throughout the frame, with just a touch of softness in the corners. And they have to be, because apertures below 2.8 are this lenses specialty. The blurred backgrounds are nice and soft; only occasionally the bokeh becomes busy when there are lots of little lights in the background. When you stop down, the lens produces beautiful stars around light sources. The images I made, indoors and outdoors, people and cityscapes, consistently enthused me. The image quality is definitely a very strong argument in favor of the Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8.

Sigma A 100-150mm ƒ/1.8 - Beispiel 1

Sigma A 100-150mm ƒ/1.8 - Example 2


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: The Sigma A 50-100mm ƒ/1.8 occupies are small niche: making professional portraits with an APS-C camera. It occupies this niche very well, though. The outstanding image quality was what excited me the most. The look and feel match the high value. Working with it was definitely very enjoyable!

Given the appropriate occasion, I will definitely try one of the 70-200mm ƒ/2.8 lenses with image stabilization for comparison. Based on the experiences gained with both lenses, I will then make my decision. You will read about that here as well.

What I’ve learned: Renting a lens for a week is the perfect way to test it thoroughly and gain an impression whether it fits your imagination and expectations. I will certainly use this option in the future again.

And: it is a lot of fun working with a professional lens like this! The week of testing however also proved the lens’ limitations. As beautiful as the images are, the 50-100’s wide aperture isn’t everything. Before taking a decision, I definitely want to compare, hence renting the lens for a week was the absolute right thing to do.


LINKS

Picture Credits: All pictures – own images.

My Gear: The “Always-on” – Sigma C 17-70mm f/2.8-4

Sigma C 17-70mm ƒ/2.8-4.0

After I had chosen my new camera, the next question obviously was which lenses to get for it. This time, I had deliberately bought the camera body without the kit lens that usually comes with it, the Canon EF-S 18-55mm ƒ/3.5-5.6. I wanted something with a bit more “punch”.

KIT LENS ALTERNATIVES

Canon themselves offer the Canon EF-S 17-55mm ƒ/2.8 as an upgrade to the kit lens. It lets in two thirds more light at the short end, and even four times as much light at the long end! The downside is, it costs around 750,- € (Nov. 2016). Fortunately, there are “off-brand” lenses available as well. This resulted in the following short-list:

  1. Sigma 17-50 mm ƒ/2.8
  2. Tamron 17-50mm ƒ/2.8
  3. Sigma 17-70 mm ƒ/2.8-4.0

The main similarities and differences can be quickly summarized:

  • No. 1 and 2 both have a 3x zoom, and a constant maximum aperture of ƒ/2.8. Both have a price tag of around 300,- € (Nov. 2016)
  • No. 3 has a 4x zoom, but a variable aperture with “only” ƒ/4.0 at the long end. It costs around 400,- € (Nov. 2016)

After studying numerous reviews, I dropped the Tamron from the list. The reviews consistently stressed that the Sigma lenses to have better image and build quality. So the remaining question was: what do I consider to be more important – longer focal distance or wider aperture? 17-70mm or constant ƒ/2.8?

In the end, I decided for the 17-70. I preferred the greater flexibility given by the extra 20mm.

SIGMA C 17-70mm ƒ/2,8-4,0 DC MACRO OS HSM

Sigma C 17-70mm ƒ/2.8-4.0
Sigma C 17-70mm ƒ/2.8-4.0

The Sigma plays a major role in the fact that photography has become so much fun for me with the new camera. Not only because it lets in much more light, making it easier to take good pictures indoors or at night – image sharpness and colour rendering have enthused me as well. As a result, it has truly become the “always-on”. Its external values are also convincing. I consider the used materials and the build quality to be very good. It comes complete with lens cap and lens hood – something Canon likes to charge extra for. Though it adds to the kit lens in terms of size and weight, it handles very well together with the camera.

Regarding taking pictures: The autofocus works very reliable on my 760D, as does the image stabiliser. This makes for good hand-held images even in difficult lighting conditions. It is not a true macro lens  – but an image scale of 1:2.8 still allows for some impressive close-ups. And thanks to the wide aperture, pictures with nice out-of-focus backgrounds (bokeh) are feasible as well.

ARE THERE ANY DOWNSIDES?

Yes, based on my experience from the past year, there are a few points to consider. What I notice the most: the zoom is very easy-going. When carrying the camera with the lens pointing down, on a belt clip or shoulder strap, the lens extends to 70mm by itself, due to its own weight (including the lens hood). This can be a bit awkward, because it becomes more likely to hit something. Plus you’ll have to adjust the zoom most of the times when picking up the camera again.

When recording video, as long as you do not use an external microphone well away from the camera, quiet clicking and chattering from the image stabilisation and autofocus will be audible. I rarely record videos, so that doesn’t bother me too much.

The images themselves offer hardly any reason for critique. The light vignetting (darkening of corners) when shooting wide open can easily be fixed in post-processing with just a few mouse clicks. In Adobe Lightroom, for instance, simply choosing the correct lens profile already does the trick. Chromatic aberrations – green and purple fringing on contrasting edges – are negligible.


CONCLUSION

Recommendation: If you are looking at an upgrade from the kit lens, I can highly recommend the Sigma C 17-70mm ƒ/2.8-4.0! It is very versatile, reliable, and renders compelling results. Even more so when taking into account that the “original” from Canon costs twice as much – but in my mind, it’s not worth the extra money.

The sister lens, Sigma 17-50mm ƒ/2.8, is worth having a look at as well – especially when you’re taking videos on a regular basis, where a constant aperture is more important. Two of my friends have it, on a Canon 350D and a Nikon D7100 respectively, and they are happy with that choice as well.

What I’ve learned: The thorough research before getting the new lens was absolutely worthwhile. In particular: when you are looking for a new lens, have a look at the third-party manufacturers as well: Samyang, Sigma, Tamrom, Tokina etc. In terms of quality as well as value for money they offer some very interesting alternatives.


LINKS:

Picture Credits: All pictures – own images.


EXAMPLE IMAGES:

Fall Colors
Fall Colors
Portrait of a Snail
Portrait of a Snail
Frankfurt - Night Skyline (HDR)
Frankfurt – Night Skyline (HDR)
December Sunrise
December Sunrise
The Forge (HDR)
The Forge (HDR)
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